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20160416 Why Europe Conquer the World

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MAIN IDEA:

The main idea of this book is that European countries due to their political history that included constant relatively low intensity and low cost to rulers wars developed what author calls the Tournament model that basically represented an open and competitive market for military activities, that, as markets normally do, was extremely beneficial to creating effective and efficient military goods and services superior to any that other regions could provide.

DETAILS:

Chapter I. Introduction

Here author posits a question: how come that Europe, which was well behind of countries like China in just about everything in 1500 practically conquered the world including China by 1900? He looks at typical answers: diseases and gunpowder technology but finds it inconvincible enough to look for additional causes. He suggests that huge military advantage that allowed such a feat came from specific European way of multiple low stakes military conflicts that he calls the Tournament. This Tournament allowed for honing technology and fighting methodology to such superior level that non-European countries could not compete.

Chapter 2. How the Tournament in Early Modern Europe Made Conquest Possible

The first point in supporting the Tournament idea is statistics of frequency of wars and expenses on military presented in a couple of tables:

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At the same time an important factor was low cost of war for rulers supported by this data:

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Correspondingly from economics point of view the Tournament could be considered as market competition for military technology and, as usual, such competition led to decrease in price and increase in quality. This point is supported by example with handguns:

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Author summarizes key points of the Tournament model as following:

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Another couple of tables demonstrates increase in productivity of military labor and decrease in cost of military equipment relative to non-military goods:

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Chapter 3. Why the Rest of Eurasia Fell Behind

This is an analysis of competition: what are the reasons why China, India, Russia, and Ottomans fall behind? The answer author provides: various deviations from the Tournament model: small frequency or different character of wars and consequently failure to stay at par with Europe technologically.

Chapter 4. Ultimate Causes: Explaining the Difference between Western Europe and the Rest of Eurasia

This is a more detailed look at causes, starting with geography: Europe was less not more mountainous than China so it could mountains could not explain higher levels of political fragmentation. Similar analysis provided for low relevance of shorelines. Neither kinship ties between rulers could be considered as a valid explanation. The inference author eventually comes to is that the culprit was political and ideological history of Europe, especially Christianity’s separation of church and state with consequent reformations and religious wars. Probably the most important, albeit not necessary preordained result, was the failure of any of European powers to achieve dominance leading to the continuing Tournament unlike China where dominance of winner removed urgency from the needs of military development.

Chapter 5. From the Gunpowder Technology to Private Expeditions

This is an interesting quirk on European military dominance. It relates to 2 very important features: gunpowder technology and private military colonial adventures. It seems to be the keys to European success: gunpowder because it is very susceptible to technological improvement and tend to have tremendous force multiplier effect practically substituting quantity of people with firepower; while privateering in colonization allowed to do it cheaply, effectively, and with minimal bureaucratic overhead as it is normally done in any private industry. Author also looks at counterfactual speculation of some European country becoming a hegemon, practically eliminating the Tournament and making Europe not different from unified China and consequently incapable to conquer the world.

Chapter 6. Technological Change and Armed Peace in Nineteenth-Century! Europe

In this chapter author traces the decrease in militancy of European countries in XIX century. He does it analyzing use of world “glory” in French and British publications of this period that decreased dramatically. At the same time improvement in military technology and growth in military expenses was continuing unabated. During this period the world conquest was practically completed with just about any landmass divided between European countries.

Chapter 7. Conclusion: The Price of Conquest

In conclusion author discusses price of conquest and eventual clash between European countries of WWI and WWII that led to collapse of European powers and disappearance of their colonial empires. He also once more revisits and rejects other explanations of Europe military dominance such as geography and culture, reaffirming his believes in validity of the Tournament and gunpowder model.

MY TAKE ON IT:

I think it is a nice and quite convincing presentation of reasons for European dominance. I believe, however, that one of the most important reasons for European dominance was underrated in author’s model. This reason is relative freedom to act that was and still is a very special characteristic of European or more widely Western cultures. Author partially touches it in discussion of private colonizing activities, but not sufficiently in my opinion because without this relative freedom not only private companies that colonized world on behalf of European countries would not exists, but also military technology would not developed or stalled as it did happened in big bureaucratic states such as China or Russia. I think it would be fair to say that European conquest of the world was a product of European relative freedom to act in pursuit of wealth whether by obtaining some overseas plantation or producing cheap and highly marketable guns.

 

 

20160409 Invention of Science

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MAIN IDEA:

The main idea of this book is to trace process of invention of science that in author’s opinion occurred between 1574 and 1704 as consequence of geographical discoveries and their impact on astronomy. These events completely changed western understanding of the world, universe, and live, providing intellectual foundation for industrial revolution and eventually for development of contemporary world.

DETAILS:

INTRODUCTION

Author defines science as building sophisticated theories based on a substantial body of evidence that could make reliable predictions. He relates the beginning of this way of thinking to Tycho Brahe’s discovery of Nova in 1574. Consequently it was firmly established with Newton’s “Optics” published in 1704. This book analyzes various ways of thinking before 1574, and then deals with core period from 1574 to 1704 when scientific approach was developed and, finally, looks at it impact afterworld.

  1. Modern Minds

This chapter is about different ways of thinking and qualitative difference between modern scientific approach and other approaches. Author uses an interesting way of looking at the set of believes and approaches that well educated European would have back in 1600. This exercise demonstrates a fascinating difference from contemporary thinking with most striking characteristic being an attitude to what could or could not be considered the truth. Basically Brahe discovery of the new thinking comes down to ability to believe own eyes more than ideas transferred via education, something that uneducated common people take for granted and call common sense, while highly educated people to this day tend to discard as way too primitive approach to the world.

  1. The Idea of the Scientific Revolution

Here author reviews the genesis of idea of scientific revolution that was surprisingly new and was really developed only as recently as 1940s as the brainchild of Alexander Koyre and Herbert Butterfield, later adapted by Thomas Kuhn, and eventually extended to the notion of science development as sequential change in paradigms. It also contains an interesting lexicographic analysis of used terms and notions starting with the word “science” itself.

 

PART ONE The Heavens and the Earth

This part reviews 3 intellectual revolutions that change our perception of the world:

  • Columbus discovery of America that implanted the very notion of discovery into minds of people
  • Copernican revolution that created notion of globe and stars as bodies
  • Tycho Brahe’s revolution that used Nova and telescope to destroy previously dominant idea of crystalline sphere surrounding Earth.
  1. Inventing Discovery

The main story here is that before Columbus the idea of discovery was impossible because somebody knew everything, if not now then in ancient time, so the world is unchangeable and there is no new knowledge to discover. Discovery of America proved quite convincingly that not everything is or was known, intellectually opening way for the new discoveries. Author also discusses Bacon’s philosophy of science that was developed as consequence of discovery of discovery.

  1. Planet Earth

This is a fascinated history of continuously changing and expanding notion of Earth until astronomers established its true form and nature.

 

PART TWO: Seeing is Believing

This part covers change in representation of knowledge from fifteenth to eighteenth century and development of knowledge acquisition tools such as telescope and microscope that facilitated this change.

  1. The Mathematization of the World

This chapter looks at impact of geometrical perspective developed by graphic artists on perception of space with following on practical application of mathematical and geometrical concepts in various areas of live from building construction and architecture to use of calculations in artillery ballistics.

  1. Gulliver’s Worlds

This chapter provides more detailed account of tools of knowledge that expanded human senses to rich distanced starts and planets with telescope and opened for observation miniature world of bacteria and details of materials with microscope.

 

PART THREE Making Knowledge

This if the key part of the book and it discusses the new special language that was developed to convey scientific ideas and notions and how it came about.

  1. Facts

The most important part of science is recognition and understanding of existence of a fact – the thing that did really occur or was actually the case. Here author again going to astronomy, specifically Kepler to demonstrate the early establishment of notion of fact as necessary tool for science. He also discusses disestablishment of “fact” using example of Giambattista Della Porta whose work “Natural Magic” was bestseller in between 1560 and 1660. Afterword author moves to the philosophical discussion, and consequently to modern understanding of a fact.

  1. Experiments

Author’s discussion of another key notional foundation of science – experiment uses Pascal’s work and philosophical application of this notion by Francis Bacon. As practical consequences of establishment of this new scientific notion author briefly reviews end of alchemy as a viable area of application of intellectual effort.

  1. Laws

This is about laws of nature and correspondingly Descartes’ philosophy. Probably the most important here is the notion of Nature’s laws as an unchangeable condition of live and environment. Originally it was perceived as just another case of God’s laws something like “ you shell not kill”, only it was setup in nature and could not be violated. However due to some extent to protestant’s theology the god got decoupled from nature’s laws that become considered as their own logical and philosophical entity.

  1. Hypotheses/Theories

This is about notions of hypotheses vs. theories. It used idea of science defined by James Conant who was Kuhn’s mentor as iterative process of analysis of facts leading to synthesis of theories in turn leading to design of experiments to produce new facts, include them into analysis and consequently expand, change, or reject theories and substitute them with the new ones.

  1. Evidence and Judgment

The final chapter of this part starts with static definition of science as knowledge based on evidence and then proceeds to discuss nature of evidence and it’s dependence on judgment. It brings into discussion John Locke and his “Essay Concerning Humane Understanding”. Overall it is a very detailed discussion of the notion of “evidence” in its multiple incarnations from casual use to legal and scientific special uses. At the end it looks at evidence in its relation to experiment and consequently to idea of science as the only intellectual tool with relatively reliable predictable power.

 

PART FOUR Birth of the Modern

This part is reviewing consequences of scientific revolution: Industrial revolution and intellectual delegitimizing of magic, demons, and similar entities that failed to obtain scientific confirmation.

  1. Machines

Here author traces link between revolutions in the way of thinking and revolution in the way of doing things. Machines including steam engine where known for a long time, but only new scientific way of thinking, specifically mechanistic view of universe allowed their application for productive purposes.

  1. The Disenchantment of the World

This chapter narrates how new scientific thinking invalidated traditional magical believes by applying requirements of experimental confirmation. The mass remaking of culture to exclude magic from general worldviews was relatively successful, albeit we still have difficulties with using scientific approach consistently especially when people’s prosperity depend on promoting non-scientific fads.

  1. Knowledge is Power

Here author makes quite convincing case that relationship between scientific knowledge, practical knowledge, and philosophy is far from straightforward. In its nonlinearity this relationship is extremely complicated, but generally could be based on philosophy coming first and opening way for non-formal quasi-scientific thinking and acting with experimentation much close to tinkering than to ex ante thought through formal activity, while actually working machines prompting search for formal scientific understanding of nature of machines, in turn opening way to the next level of complexity and utility of the machines.

 

CONCLUSION The Invention of Science

The final chapter discusses consequences of recognizing reality of scientific revolution.

  1. In Defiance of Nature

Here author discusses progress as purely scientific characteristic of knowledge and technology, while denying it as characteristic for humanities. He looks at various philosophical approaches to science: relativists, holists, determinists, constructivism, naïve relists, postmodernists, and such.

  1. These Postmodern Days

Here author discusses his role and philosophy as historian, stressing impossibility of neutral perception of the past due to impossibility to discard existing knowledge. His important concern is not to write teleological narrative since he does not believe in such approach.

  1. ‘What Do I Know?’

This chapter presents the final conclusion that science – the experimental method interlocking theory and practical technology completely change our approach to the world and consequently become so much foundational part of our intellectual lives as to be invisible.

MY TAKE ON IT:

I think this book a little bit overemphasizes role of geographical discoveries and astronomy in development of scientific way of thinking. I would look more at overall specifics of development of western society that was characterized by high level of competition in all areas especially in military areas with multiple wars with no final victory for anybody, continuously changing alliances, and high level of dependency on technology for outcome of conflicts, making it very important to evaluate reality as it is regardless of preexisting conceptions and/or misconceptions that one has. I would also pay more attention to ideological or more precisely theological competition that was instrumental in development of intellectual tools that eventually were used in scientific revolution.

 

20160402 The Health Gap

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MAIN IDEA:

The author of this book is also author of the famous Whitehall study of British civil servants that convincingly demonstrated direct correlation between individual’s health outcomes over long time with this individual’s place in the bureaucratic hierarchy: the lower place in hierarchy the less healthy is the individual. These findings demonstrated that typical justification for perks for high-level bureaucrats based on their “sacrifices” and “burden of responsibility” has no value whatsoever. However despite this prove of high cost of hierarchy for its low-level members author seems to see way for improvement in collectivistic solutions such as government healthcare, higher control over individuals by bureaucracy and similar measures.

DETAILS:

Introduction

This starts with the story of author’s discovery of direct mind-body-health connection back in his youth when he was a doctor in Australia hospital. The core of discovery: the stress damages physical health and the good material and psychological conditions of live are necessary for good health. Therefore author objective is “Rise up… against the organization of misery”

 

  1. The Organization of Misery.

Here author refers to research results for different social strata in Glasgow that demonstrated health and mortality dependency on belonging to one strata of society or another. As one could expect more wealth directly linked to more health. Then this analysis is expanded from one city to different countries demonstrating that it generally applied across the world, however with a caveat that lower strata in rich country could have worse health outcome than top strata in poor country. In short the correlation is not strong between wealth and health of countries on average. Here is a nice graph for this:

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The conclusion at the end of chapter is that it is not only absolute, but also relative wealth that counts for health outcome.

 

  1. Whose Responsibility

This is about responsibility for one’s health. Author conclusion is that it should be shared. Individual responsibility should be heavily supplemented by free medical services. I really like the rules for healthy living provided by author, even if he believes that much of it does not depends on individuals, but rather on circumstances of their lives:

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  1. Fair Society, Healthy. Lives

This chapter includes discussion on understanding of fairness and justice. It is using ideas of John Rawls, utilitarian Jeremy Bentham, freedom and equality of opportunity, deserving vs. undeserving poor, and such. The key point here is that live inequalities have really tangible consequences in health outcomes. Most interesting is author’s conclusion that the best way to social justice is to maximize freedom and create conditions for people to have control over their lives. At the end of chapter author points out that even if economic status and health influence each other, the main concern should be directed to economics impact on health and therefore effort should be directed at improvement of economic situation of people.

  1. Equity from the Start

This is about impact of childhood circumstances on health and wealth acquisition in adulthood. Here is a very interesting graph for IQ:

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The inference here is that low economic status in childhood has significant impact on all outcomes and in order to achieve real equality of opportunity society should break the link between poverty and early childhood development.

  1. Education and Empowerment

The key point of this chapter is that education and knowledge is not only power, but also health:

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  1. Working to Live

This is analysis of relationship between work and health. Unsurprisingly the conclusion is that hard and routine work with high stress and low security is very unhealthy. However unemployment is even unhealthier. Finally the demanding job with high level of satisfaction providing high income is very healthy, even necessary.

  1. Do Not Go Gentle

This chapter about age and health starts with a very good advice from Shakespeare: one should not get old until he has got wise. Then it goes into analysis of social economic influence on age and health and demonstrates that it is quite significant:

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The conclusion here is that wealth, psychologically rewarding work, and political power provide for better health for older people in developed countries.

  1. Building Resilient Communities

This chapter is about impact of community that individual belongs to on individual’s health both physical and mental. It is not good enough to be wealthy and healthy, it is also important to belong to wealthy and healthy community. Otherwise one’s own well being is always unreliable.

  1. Fair Societies

This is about author understanding of good and bad societies. Author seems to give credit to right wing ideology for good economy, but insists that unbridled markets are bad especially for education and health. At the same time he is very cautious not to support such isms as socialism and communism in view of proved disastrous experience with these systems in XX century. As one would expect, his ideal or something close to it is Nordic (Sweden or Denmark) welfare state with strong caring government keeping check on capitalism.

  1. Living Fairly in the World

This chapter is about worldwide health outcomes and their relation to globalization, trade, and overall economics of various countries. Author uses UN Human development report to come to preordained inference that health directly, positively, and causally related to public spending on healthcare and education. This is followed by discussion of third world and need for global governance to achieve positive results, meaning more equality.

  1. The Organization of Hope

The last chapter is about author activities in international organizations that promote ideas of society organization beneficial for health of its members. It refers to author 3 reports: “Closing gap in a generation”, “Fair society, healthy lives”, and European Review of Social Determinants and Health Divide”. The key point here is that, in author’s opinion based on evidence, the inequality in income and wealth directly causes inequality in health outcome, so in order to improve latter one had to improve former first. Author seems to believe that it could be achievable by Social-democratic means, that is by growing bureaucracy that would have increasing control over economics and human lives in order to make these lives healthier.

MY TAKE ON IT:

I find this book very interesting as source of data and quite primitive as source of recommendations. There is an interesting and, seems to be unavoidable for socialistically minded people contradiction between author’s data in recommendations. His data demonstrate that it is quite unhealthy to be a low level bureaucrat in huge bureaucratic machine even in wealthy country, while his recommendations are directed to increase in bureaucracies not only at the local, but also on the global level. There is also a typical approach to big governmental bureaucracy as some benevolent entity dedicated to common good with complete disregard of existing experience that all bureaucracies are always just mechanism to achieving goals of human individuals who control them. Needless to say that goals and objective of these individual usually fully dedicated to their own well being, with formal “objectives of bureaucracies” being just a façade useful for convincing people transfer resources to them. I believe that big bureaucracies could not possibly be healthy even if they objectives include “common health”. The only way individuals could be healthy is if they have necessary resources available to them on individual basis including ability to decide how these resources are used. Without this ability whatever amount of “public resources” spent on “common health” will eventually be converted into resources spent on wealth and prosperity of bureaucrats in control of these resources.

 

20160326 Learning by Doing

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MAIN IDEA:

The main idea of this book is that inventions that have impact on civilization, even small ones, are not a product of lone geniuses, but rather complex results of various efforts of multiple people doing some improvements big and small. We should understand the complex nature of inventions and promote all individuals’ active participation in the process regardless of how insignificant their role looks like. Moreover, not only inventions, but also all and any meaningful improvement in processes and technology require skills, efforts, and deserve good remuneration because skills level requirements while different in reality are much less significant than usually perceived and even what is considered low level unskilled job still provide necessary component into the Prosperity of Nations.

DETAILS:

PART I. TECHNOLOGY

  1. More Than Inventions

Author uses the development of textile industry in USA as source of information for process of development and implementation of ideas. He starts with looking at quality of people employed in this industry over its live cycle and finds that it changed quite dramatically over time. During initial phases it was very high with relatively highly educated girls employed even in low-level jobs, but with development of tools, processes, and technics demand for high quality people decreased. He looks at 4 conceptual distinctions of technology implementation:

  1. Technology vs. Original Inventions
  2. Mass vs. Elite Knowledge
  3. Knowledge vs. Ideas
  4. Dynamic vs. Static Technical Knowledge.
  1. The Skills of the Unskilled

Here author analyses learning curve and concludes that the most important part of learning is doing. Here is a nice graph to demonstrate this:

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There is important caveat here that it is not possible to achieve results via theoretical learning only.

  1. Revolutions in Slow Motion

Here author supports his thesis by presenting data that scientific / industrial revolutions generally are not really short-term events, but rather long tern developments. Here is a nice table demonstrating this:

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  1. Standard Knowledge

This chapter is about standardization of knowledge. It begins with story of periodic table, which greatly simplified learning of chemistry and analysis of chemical processes. Then he looks at live cycle of knowledge and at process of establishment of dominant design, as usual using example of QWERTY. Another very interesting point in this chapter is that future development is unknown and could not be predicted even by the best experts as it demonstrated by example with AOL and Time Warner.

PART II. WAGES

  1. When Does Technology Raise Wages?

This chapter looks at dynamics of wage changes in relation to technology implementation and maturity, again using example of textile industry. The most important part here is discussion of relation between wages and unique and not easily transferrable or obtainable skills. Individuals with such skill normally get nice premium on their use.

  1. How the Weavers Got Good Wag

This chapter uses history of weavers and how their wages changed based on skills. Here a small table summarizing it:

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  1. The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs

The main point of this chapter is that so far robots do not push people out of work, despite logical inference that it should eventually happen. Even bank teller did not really disappear; only their number just stopped growing. People just had to switch to different occupations and the main problem is skill mismatch when job market demands are changing faster than people are capable to meet them.

PART III. TECHNOLOGY POLICY

  1. Does Technology Require More College Diplomas?

This chapter looks at notion of formal higher education being the key for success. It used to be true when jobs where less specialized so any college graduates had general skills required. Now however general college education is not enough, market requires specific skills that people fail to acquire because resources are directed to colleges. Here is a nice table demonstrating this:

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  1. Whose Knowledge Economy?

This is about current situation when everybody becomes a knowledge worker, whatever area he/she is working in. It looks specifically at manufacturing and concludes that huge growth of productivity is the main cause. It uses recent history of steel production of demonstrative the case.

  1. Procuring new Knowledge

This chapter looks positively at government procurement programs as a way to build useful specific and applicable knowledge for population. The cases here are from defense and health industries.

  1. The Forgotten History of Knowledge Sharing

This chapter is very interesting by its analysis of knowledge sharing between inventors and innovators. Author makes pretty convincing case for a fresh look at patent laws and cases when strict intellectual property could be not that good for innovation.

  1. Patents and Early-Stage Knowledge

This is continuation of intellectual property discussion with main point that explosion of litigation brings a serious threat to process of the new knowledge creation. Here is the related graph:

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  1. The Political Economy of Technical Knowledge

This chapter is about legal and political approaches to innovation in Japan and USA and how it could promote of stun development.

  1. The Skills of the Many and the Prosperity of Nations

The final brief chapter is the restatement of main thesis of the book that knowledge and skills widely distributed among population and new useful knowledge is not developed by superior geniuses, but rather is result of conscious or more often unconscious cooperative efforts of people each of which just trying to improve their own live and be more effective and efficient in doing whatever they are doing. The result of these efforts is prosperity of population or lack thereof when political and/or ideological circumstances prevent people from doing it.

MY TAKE ON IT:

I am petty much in synch with ideas of this book. I also believe in superior effectiveness and eventual efficiency of independent efforts of free people comparatively to top down directed and bureaucratically organized effort of people included into hierarchical structures. The only partial disagreement I have is with idea that the new technology just shuffles people from one activity to another without removing need in their work. I strongly believe that ongoing development of computer technology and especially Artificial Intelligence eventually would lead to complete elimination of humans from routine activities in all areas from manufacturing to R&D research. It is bound to happen and for foreseeable future it would be stressful and painful process of finding new methods for functioning of human society without sale of labor as its economic foundation. Humanity was relatively successful in its switches from hunting gathering to militaristic-agricultural and then to industrial and informational methods, so it should manage to do well while switching to labor-less economic foundation when all human activities are voluntary and not dependent neither on direct coercion of slave or indirect coercion of wage earner.

20160319 Cybersecurity and Cyberwar

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MAIN IDEA:

The main idea here is to review Internet technology and its vulnerabilities to informational crimes such as stealing valuable data, taking control over information flows, especially such sensitive as classified data or money flow, and even taking over control via computer network over power grid, transportation and information networks. The auxiliary objectives to the idea to raise awareness of the threat are proposals that authors offer in order to handle these problems.

DETAILS:

INTRODUCTION

Why Write a Book about Cybersecurity and Cyberwar? Why Is There Cybersecurity Knowledge and Why Does It Matter? How Did You Write the Book and What Do You Hope to Accomplish?

This introduction is mainly about reasons for writing this book: poor understanding of nature of Cybersecurity, threats caused by its deficiencies, and methods to improve it. The objective is to promote conscious understanding of related issues that would lead to improvement in technology, behavioral patterns, and legal framework for new Internet world.

 

PART I HOW IT ALL WORKS

The World Wide What? Defining Cyberspace. Where Did This “Cyber Stuff’ Come from Anyway? A Short History of the Interne; How Does the Internet Actually Work? Who Runs It? Understanding Internet Governance; On the Internet, How Do They Know Whether You Are a Dog? Identity and Authentication; What Do We Mean by “Security” Anyway? What Are the Threats? One Phish, Two Phish, Red Phish, and Cyber Phish: What Are Vulnerabihties? How Do We Trust in Cyberspace? Focus: What Happened in WikiLeaks? What Is an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)?

How Do We Keep the Bad Guys Out? The Basics of Computer Defense; Who Is the Weakest Link? Human Factors;

This chapter contains highly simplified technical details of Internet, TCPIP and how it works functionally. The key point here is that the way Internet designed, it is very difficult differentiate between data and executable code and most important contemporary systems designed execute code that comes with message. This is the root cause of hackerism, data theft, and cyber attacks. However the conclusion author infers is that the weakest link of computer / human interactive system is human, not computer. It is human who fails to setup strong password, divulge information they are not supposed to divulge, get cheated by phishing and other methods of social engineering.

 

PART H WHY IT MATTERS

What Is the Meaning of Cyber attack? The Importance of Terms and Frameworks; Whodunit? The Problem of Attribution; What Is Hactivism? Focus: Who Is Anonymous? The Crimes of Tomorrow, Today: What Is Cybercrime? Shady RATs and Cyberspies: What Is Cyber Espionage?

How Afraid Should We Be of Cyberterrorism? So How Do Terrorists Actually Use the Web?

What about Cyber Counterterrorism? Security Risk or Human Right? Foreign Policy and the Internet; Focus: What Is Tor and Why Does Peeling Back the Onion Matter? Who Are Patriotic Hackers? Focus: What Was Stuxnet? What Is the Hidden Lesson of Stuxnet? The Ethics of Cyber weapons; “Cyberwar What Are Zeros and Ones good for?” Defining Cyberwar; A War by Any Other Name? The Legal Side of Cyber Conflict; What Might a “Cyberwar” Actually Look Like? Computer Network Operations; Focus: What Is the US Military Approach to Cyberwar? Focus: What Is the Chinese Approach to Cyberwar? What about Deterrence in an Era of Cyberwar?

Why Is Threat Assessment So Hard in Cyberspace? Does the Cybersecurity World Favor the Weak or the Strong? Who Has the Advantage, the Offense or the Defense? A New Kind of Arms Race: What Are the Dangers of Cyber Proliferation? Are There Lessons from Past Arms Races?

Behind the Scenes: Is There a Cyber-Industrial Complex?

This chapter is detailed review of all potential problems that could come from Internet, various viruses, dark net – Tor, and review of potential state led attacks with especial attention to Chinese activities.

PART III WHAT CAN WE DO?

Don’t Get Fooled: Why Can’t We Just Build a New, More Secure Internet? Rethink Security: What Is Resilience, and Why Is It Important? Reframe the Problem (and the Solution): What Can We Learn from Public Health? Learn from History: What Can (Real) Pirates Teach Us about Cyber security? Protect World Wide Governance for the World Wide Web: What Is the Role of International Institutions? “Graft” the Rule of Law: Do We Need a Cyberspace Treaty? Understand the Limits of the State in Cyberspace: Why Can’t the Government Handle It? Rethink Government’s Role: How Can We Better Organize for Cybersecurity? Approach It as a Public-Private Problem: How Do We Better Coordinate Defense? Exercise Is Good for You: How Can We Better Prepare for Cyber Incidents? Build Cybersecurity Incentives: Why Should I Do What You Want? Learn to Share: How Can We Better Collaborate on Information? Demand Disclosure: What Is the Role of Transparency? Get “Vigorous” about Responsibility: How Can We Create Accountability for Security? Find the IT Crowd: How Do We Solve the Cyber People Problem?

Do Your Part: How Can I Protect Myself (and the Internet)?

The final part is pretty much about various options of making Internet more secure. It goes into details of international agreements existing and potential, role of transparency and incentives for good Internet behavior.

CONCLUSIONS

Where Is Cybersecurity Headed Next? What Do I Really Need to Know in the End?

This is look at Internet future with cloud, switch to mobile devises, Internet of things, and attempts of all kind of current evildoers like Chinese government and aspiring evildoers like Obama totalitarians to bring Internet under government control.

MY TAKE ON IT:

It is all nice, timely, and important, but I cannot understand why it is not possible to change computer systems in such way that they would run code downloaded exclusively from known source keep it in protected area of memory, and execute on demand, rather then treat all input data as potentially executable code. Obviously such redesign would require a lot of effort and would make system less flexible, but if arriving data allowed only reference to code already registered on computer, all hacking become plainly impossible. I am quite sure that something like this is the work and if it would be not Internet 2.0, then it would be Internet 25.5, but eventually free for all will end and Internet would become more secure then any facility where one could walk in in person in order to cause any harm.